Bostwana dating

His 2015 book The Real Planet of the Apes presents his scientific work on Miocene Apes to a popular readership.On the other hand in Origins of the African hominoids: an assessment of the palaeobiogeographical evidence Susanne M. Department of Anthropology, Harvard University argues that the abundance of fossil ape remains in Eurasia, compared with a dearth of similar-aged apes in Africa is due to sampling: Eurasian localities are much richer and more diverse during this interval than African localities, and hence their apes are better represented.Africa has yielded the oldest and most diverse Miocene/Pliocene hominoids.It is the only continent where the chimp and gorilla live in the wild, and it has the earliest bona fide hominid sensu stricto remains. The relative abundance of Eurasian apes between 12.5 and 8 Ma, in contrast to a dearth of African apes during the same chronologic interval, has led some investigators to suggest that the African ape—human clade evolved from a Eurasian ancestor, specifically, a previously undescribed and unnamed ape from Turkey.Moreover, there is no evidence of a mass ape extinction (in Africa) at the end of the Middle Miocene, nor is it likely that a Eurasian species founded the African ape/human clade as the result of a biogeographic retreat from Eurasia. In the last several weeks, three new ape genera have been reported, one from Turkey (Ouranopithecus turkae), one from Ethiopia (Chororapithecus abyssinicus), and the latest, Nakalipithecus nakayamai, from Kenya, (the size of a female gorilla, dating 9.9-9.8 Ma).The apparent 14-7 Ma African "ape gap" is now populated not only by Nakalipithecus but also by the penecontemporaneous Kenyan large ape Samburupithecus kiptalami, dated slightly younger at 9.6 Ma, and by yet another large gorilla-like ape, C.abyssinicus, from the 10.5-10 Ma horizons of Chorora, Ethiopia.Further on - the Miocene (23-5.3 Ma) a most dynamic epoch both in terms of geological and climatic transformation and that of the scale and scope of our hominoid evolution and dispersal.

The nature of good science is robust debate and paleo sciences not only produces greater quantity but a more extensive range of topics that engage not only paleoanthropology and a host of other science disciplines like phylogenetics, paleogeophysics, paleoclimatology but extends into the humanities and even the transpersonal as it searches and interprets evidence to refine the story of our human and cosmic evolution.A contemporary example of competing theories about the origin of our Hominoid ancestors is the ongoing debate between equally qualified paleontologists. Begun is professor of anthropology at the University of Toronto and follows evidence that our most immediate hominoid ancestors evolved in Europe from more primitive migrants out of Africa millions of years earlier that returned to Africa in the late Miocene to further evolve into hominids.It is no surprise that the credibility of interpretations attempting to explain, reconstruct and position any organism in a Tree of Life - despite applying every advanced paleontological method available - diminishes exponentially the further back in time we go.In the quest for our human story, the challenge rises immediately in the last 14-10 Ka for a reliable scenario for the peopling of the Americas and gets increasingly complicated and more speculative as evidence of slow climatic and geophysical changes must be factored in to correlate with relatively swift biogenetic evolution. antecessor from 1.3 Ma but of the half dozen or so Homo species preceding these - until Homo habilis from 2.8 Ma - no prior transitional species has been identified.Advances in molecular genetic science has improved our understanding of the past 50 K of our Homo sapiens prehistory but our phylogeny becomes fraught with uncertainty as to exactly what fossil represents a direct ancestor. Compared to the ancestral lineage for Homo erectus that includes H. ergaster, the pages in the story of that million-year-chapter of our Pleistocene phylogeny are missing.

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